Civil War Battlefield Events (Land Actions) From 1861 to 1865


The American Civil War relied heavily on the successes of battlefield commanders and soldiers as well as artillery and logistics.

There are a total of (430) Civil War Battlefield Events (Land Actions) From 1861 to 1865 events in the CivilWarTimeline.net database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events are also included for perspective.








April 19, 1861

During unrest in Washington, D.C., four soldiers and twelve civilians are killed.



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April 20, 1861

To avoid further clashes with troops, Baltimore formally asks President Lincoln to refrain from having military forces pass through the city.



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April 20, 1861

American citizens are arrested throughout Baltimore, Boston and New York without due process - brought about by warrants issued under the name of the United States Secretary of State.



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April 21, 1861

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General Benjamin Butler, a Union officer, arrives at Annapolis, Maryland with his forces. However Governor Thomas Hicks takes offense to northern elements present in the state.



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April 29, 1861

The state of Maryland votes to remain in the Union.



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May 10, 1861

State authorities of Maryland pass a resolution decrying the war against the south. It decides to take a neutral stance in the growing conflict.



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May 13, 1861

Union forces, under the command of Benjamin Butler, take Baltimore, Maryland.



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May 14, 1861

Both Fort McHenry and Baltimore, Maryland are occupied by troops under the direction of General Benjamin Butler.



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September 7, 1861

Ship Island, off the coast of Biloxi, Mississippi, is claimed by Union forces.



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September 17, 1861

Ships of the United States Navy move in to secure Ship Island off the coast of Mississippi.



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October 1, 1861

Confederate generals request 20,000 additional troops to take Maryland. Their request is denied by President Jefferson Davis.



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October 8, 1861

A Confederate force raids a Union camp at Santa Rosa Island (Pensacola).



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October 9, 1861

Union troops manage to push back a Confederate attack targeting supplies on Santa Rosa Island in Pensacola Harbor, Florida.



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November 7, 1861

The Battle of Belmont is fought on Missouri soil. It marks the first major engagement for Union General Ulysses S. Grant. A force of about 5,000 Confederates square off against 3,114 Union in Mississippi County, Missouri. It is a Confederate victory but gives Grant much-needed experience in field command.



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November 23, 1861

Union defenders at Fort Pickens on Santa Rosa Island in Pensacola, Florida push back a rebel force attempting to overtake their positions.



February 6, 1862

Fort Henry, along the Tennessee River in Tennessee, falls to forces under the combine efforts of land and naval forces under the direction of General Grant. He then turns his attention eastward towards enemy-held Fort Donelson along the Cumberland River.



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February 8, 1862

The Union Navy is victorious over Confederate forces at Roanoke Island in North Carolina.



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February 20, 1862

Union Captain David Farragut arrives outside of New Orleans, Louisiana with his naval forces in tow. He takes up position at Ship Island near Biloxi, Mississippi. This is part of the campaign to retake the strategically important port city.



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February 20, 1862

Union Captain David Farragut takes command of the West Gulf Squadron.



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February 28, 1862

The Battle of Island Number Ten (New Madrid, Missouri) begins. Union forces are led by John Pope and Andrew Footer against Confederate foes headed by John McCown and William Mackall. Six Union gunboats are aided by eleven mortar rafts, facing a Confederate force of 7,000.



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March 8, 1862

In a naval encounter at Hampton Roads, Virginia, USS Cumberland and USS Congress fall to the confederate warship CSS Virginia.



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March 8, 1862

USS Cumberland is rammed and sunk by CSS Virginia.



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March 14, 1862

The Battle of New Bern is had in Craven County, North Carolina. 11,000 Union soldiers are supported by fourteen gunboats against a Confederate Army showcasing 4,000 troops and single cavalry regiment. The result is a Union victory with minimal losses on both sides.



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March 23, 1862

Union General Benjamin Butler arrives at Ship Island, Mississippi to join in the plans for the ultimate battle to take New Orleans.



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March 26, 1862

The Battle of Glorieta Pass is fought between 1,300 Union troops and 1,100 Confederates. The engagement is a two-day affair spanning from March 26th until March 28th and leads to a Union Victory in northern New Mexico Territory.



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April 4, 1862

Gneeral John Pope's Union forces at New Madrid, Missouri, complete the construction of a canal intended to bypass Confederate firepower along the Mississippi River at Island Number Ten.



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April 7, 1862

Island Number Ten along the Mississippi River, south of New Madrid, Missouri, is given up by the defending Confederate garrison.



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April 8, 1862

The Battle of Island Number Ten draws to a close as the Union claims the victory. Some 7,000 Confederates surrender in the aftermath.



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May 11, 1862

After having run aground near Craney Island, Virginia, CSS Virginia is set alight by her crew.



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June 27, 1862

The Union Army of the Cumberland is now under the direction of General William Rosecrans.



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July 9, 1862

President Lincoln pays General McClellan a visit at Harrison's Landing in Virginia.



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July 17, 1862

The First Battle of Cynthiana is had in Cynthiana, Kentucky. Confederate General John Morgan and his raiders are victorious in taking the town as well as its defending Union garrison.



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July 31, 1862

From a position at Coggin's Point in Virginia, Confederate guns manage little damage against Union warships located near Harrison's Landing.



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August 5, 1862

Confederate General Henry Allen is wounded in the Battle of Baton Rouge, leading to his left leg being amputated. He will later be named governor of Confederate Louisiana.



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August 5, 1862

The Battle of Baton Rouge takes place on this date. Forces include 2,500 Union against 2,600 Confederate. The battle goes down as a Union victory with similar losses to both sides (371 and 478 respectively).



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September 4, 1862

Near Leesburg, Virginia, the Army of Northern Virginia begins its crossing along the Potomac River.



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September 5, 1862

General Lee makes his first foray into a Union state - crossing the Potomac River and entering Maryland.



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September 7, 1862

General Robert Lee has amassed his army at Frederick, Maryland.



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September 7, 1862

General George McClellan begins a slow advance away from Washington, D.C. to meet the Confederate threat emerging from Virginia.



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September 9, 1862

Special Orders 191 is given by General Lee, ordering a special column formation to be taken by his troops to increase the chances of overtaking Harpers Ferry and the Union forces garrisoned there.



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September 11, 1862

General Lee assigns General Longstreet to guard the approaches from the north while General Hill is given the task of the defending the approaches from the south of Harpers Ferry.



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September 11, 1862

General Jackson engages Union forces at Martinsburg and drives them back towards Harpers Ferry.



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September 12, 1862

The Battle of Harpers Ferry begins. Generals Miles and White lead a Union force of 14,000 against some 26,000 Confederate attackers under the command of generals Stonewall Jackson and A.P. Hill.



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September 13, 1862

The Army of the Potomac arrives at Frederick, Maryland. Once there, soldiers recover a copy of General Lee's plans.



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September 14, 1862

The Battle of South Mountain is had in Maryland leading to a Union victory. 28,000 Union troops square off against 18,000 Confederates. Losses for both sides are nearly equal.



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September 14, 1862

The Battle of South Mountain takes place. It is a Union victory for General McClellan, General Burnside and General Franklin over General Lee and General Hill.



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September 14, 1862

The Battle of Crampton's Gap (Burkittsville) is a Union victory for General Franklin over General Cobb. Forces number 12,800 to 2,100, respectively.



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September 15, 1862

General Jackson's forces open up with artillery strikes against Union forces at Harpers Ferry.



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September 15, 1862

The Battle of Harpers Ferry ends as a Confederate victory.



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September 15, 1862

A Confederate division under the command of General John Walker takes Loudoun Heights.



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September 15, 1862

General Dixon Miles quickly surrenders the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry.



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September 15, 1862

General Lee arranges his army behind Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland.



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September 16, 1862

Having suffered a mortal wound at the Battle of Harpers Ferry, General Dixon Miles dies.



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September 17, 1862

The Battle of Antietam is had near Sharpsburg, Maryland and results of the one-day engagement are tactically inconclusive. 87,164 Union troops (led by McClellan) face off against 38,000 Confederates (led by Lee). Casualties are 12,410 and 10,316 respectively.



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September 17, 1862

Union forces at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee are driven away by the Confederates, leaving the remaining garrison to fend for itself.



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October 22, 1862

Confederate troops take their positions at the now-abandoned Cumberland Gap garrison in Tennessee.



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October 28, 1862

The 79th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment from Kansas is the first black regiment to see combat for Union forces. It is involved in clashes at Island Mounds, Missouri.



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November 3, 1862

Union ground forces, aided by five gunboats, attack Confederate positions at Bayou Teche in Louisiana.



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March 30, 1863

Confederate forces are beaten by the Union Army in Kentucky. Confederate General Pegram's forces are pushed back across the Cumberland River. The Union charge is led by General Quincy Gillmore.



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May 5, 1863

With vocal and public opposition to to Lincoln's war, Congressman Clement Vallandigham (Ohio) is arrested.



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May 19, 1863

Vocal war critic (and now disgraced U.S. Congressman) Clement Vallandigham is banished to the South by President Lincoln.



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June 7, 1863

French forces move in to secure Mexico City.



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June 9, 1863

Confederate cavalry forces are victorious at Brandy Station, Virginia.



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June 12, 1863

Confederate navy elements begin a period of raids against Union shipping along the American East Coast.



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June 14, 1863

Confederate Lieutenant A. Wills Gould, an artillery officer under General Nathan Forrest, is stabbed to death by Forrest following Gould's attempt to kill him.



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June 14, 1863

Winchester, Virginia falls to Confederate Cavalry under the command of General Richard Ewell.



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June 17, 1863

Aldie, Virginia is the scene of a cavalry clash between North and South forces.



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June 19, 1863

At the expense of the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry, Union forces are victorious in Middleburg, Virginia.



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June 21, 1863

Union forces are victorious is a clash of cavalry with the South. The Confederates are led by J.E.B. Stuart and the fighting takes place at Upperville, Virginia.



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June 22, 1863

West Virginia, a breakaway territory of Virginia proper, becomes the 35th state in the Union.



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June 23, 1863

Confederate forces are victorious at Brashear City, Louisiana.



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June 24, 1863

Confederate navy forces conclude their raids against Union shipping targets along the northeast American coast.



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June 24, 1863

Liberty Gap and Hoover Gap near Murfressboro, Tennessee are claimed by Union forces.



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June 25, 1863

Despite an attempt by Union engineers to destroy the Vicksburg defenses from below, Vicksburg remains under Confederate control.



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June 26, 1863

General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, son to Confederate General Robert E. Lee, is captured by Union forces in Hanover, Virginia.



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June 27, 1863

Union forces capture Confederate navy elements off the coast of Portland, Maine.



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June 27, 1863

General Joseph Hooker of the Union Army tenders his resignation from the Army of the Potomac due to a dispute with Army HQ on the status of the defense at Harpers Ferry. The resignation is accepted by President Lincoln.



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June 28, 1863

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General George G. Meade succeeds the resigned General Joseph Hooker at commander of the Army of the Potomac.



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June 28, 1863

Union defenders at Fort Butler in Donaldsonville, Florida are victorious against attacking Confederate forces.



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June 29, 1863

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George Armstrong Custer is named General within the Union ranks. At the age of just 23, he becomes the youngest general of the Army during the war.



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June 30, 1863

The route to Chattanooga is threatened when Confederate General Bragg is forced to abandon his positions in northern Tennessee.



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June 30, 1863

Attacking Confederate cavalry forces, led by General Stuart, are repelled by a Union counterattack. The clash takes place at Hanover, Pennsylvania.



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June 30, 1863

Confederate forces, at brigade strength, tangle with Union elements in Gettysburg in the hopes of securing supplies.



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June 30, 1863

West Virginia officially becomes a supporter of the Union cause in the Civil War and commits its resources to the conflict



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July 1, 1863

Union engineers attempt a second demolition of Union defenses at Vicksburg, Mississippi. This attempt also fails to make progress.



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July 1, 1863

Carlisle, Pennsylvania falls under an attack by General Jeb Stuarts cavalry forces.



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July 2, 1863

Confederate General John Morgan leads his cavalry forces on the first of several raids throughout Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. The raiding actions will run nearly a month.



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July 4, 1863

Vicksburg, Mississippi finally surrenders to General Grant and his Union forces. Some 30,000 prisoners are granted release with the promise not to engage the Union militarily again.



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July 4, 1863

Union defenders hold off a Confederate attempt to retake Helena, Arkansas. The Confederates are led by General Theophilus Holmes and the price to take Helena is high for the attackers.



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July 4, 1863

Former U.S. President Franklin Pierce delivers a speech in Concord, New Hampshire reminding listeners of the value of liberty in the ongoing conflict which has seen the American military grow in strength and influence.



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July 5, 1863

A besieged Union cavalry force at Bardstown, Kentucky surrenders to Confederate attackers.



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July 9, 1863

Port Hudson, Mississippi is given up by Confederate defenders after a siege lasting six long weeks. This gives the Union a vast amount of control concerning the Mississippi waterway.



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July 9, 1863

Jackson, Mississippi is under siege from forces directed by Union General William Sherman.



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July 12, 1863

Union forces at Jackson, Mississippi, attempt to overtake Confederate positions but are heavily repulsed. General Jacob Lauman directs the unsuccessful Union charge.



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July 13, 1863

Union forces take Yazoo City, Mississippi.



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July 13, 1863

The North and South will no longer adhere to the prisoner exchange agreement from earlier in the war.



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July 13, 1863

General John Morgan's Confederate cavalry is spotted just north of Cincinnati, Ohio during one of his many raiding actions in Union territory.



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July 13, 1863

Over a dozen civilians are killed during rioting in New York after the release of names from the first Union military draft. The rioting spans July 13th until July 16th and involves some 50,000 New Yorkers.



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July 14, 1863

Confederate forces belonging to General Robert E. Lee cross the Potomac River.



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July 15, 1863

The Department of Virginia and North Carolina is created by the Union.



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July 16, 1863

With Jackson, Mississippi fallen to Union forces, General Joseph Johnson's Confederate forces abandon the area.



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July 16, 1863

The Mississippi River waterway is firmly in control of Union forces.



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July 18, 1863

Union forces fail to take Fort Wagner. near Charleston, South Carolina. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment taking part in the attack is made up of Negro soldiers, the first of its kind for the Union Army.



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July 18, 1863

The Confederate's Army of Mississippi cavalry forces command is given to General Joseph Wheeler.



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July 26, 1863

General John Morgan and his raiding cavalry forces are taken prisoner by Union elements near New Lisbon, Ohio.



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July 30, 1863

The Order of Retaliation is handed down by President Lincoln. The measure calls for the execution of one Confederate soldier for every one Union soldier killed in violation of the rules of war.



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July 31, 1863

The Union's Army of the Potomac numbers 75,000 men by this date, outpacing that of the Confederate's Army of Northern Virginia which claims just 41,000 to its ranks.



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August 1, 1863

A Union prison camp is opened at Point Lookout, Maryland.



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August 3, 1863

General Bragg's forces successfully evade Union capture when they cross the Cumberland Mountains.



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August 21, 1863

Lawrence, Kansas is attacked by Captain William Quantrill. 150 men and boys are slaughtered in the action.



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August 26, 1863

Union and Confederate cavalry elements meet one another at Rocky Gap outside of White Sulphur Springs in West Virginia. The clashes last until the 27th.



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September 2, 1863

Lexington, Kentucky is taken by confederate forces under the command of General Edmund Kirby.



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September 2, 1863

Knoxville, Tennessee is taken by General Burnside of the Union Army.



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September 4, 1863

Union General Ulysses S. Grant is injured after being thrown by his horse. The incident takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana.



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September 6, 1863

Under pressure from a Union bombardment, Confederate forces relocate from Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.



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September 8, 1863

Union warships fail to take Fort Grisby in Texas from Confederate defenders.



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September 9, 1863

Cumberland Gap, Tennessee is claimed by Union forces. Confederate defenders surrender.



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September 9, 1863

General Rosecrans directs a capture of Chattanooga, Tennessee forcing Confederates to withdraw. The Confederate forces are led by General Bragg.



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September 10, 1863

Following a Confederate withdrawal at Little Rock, Arkansas, Union forces move in. General Frederick Steele is the commander for the North.



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September 13, 1863

Culpepper, Virginia is the site of a cavalry face-off between North and South.



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September 18, 1863

The Battle of Chickamauga begins pitting Northern forces led by General Rosecrans against Southern forces led by General Bragg. The North commits about 60,000 souls to the South's 65,000. The battle lasts two days and covers the counties of Catoosa and Walker in Georgia.



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September 20, 1863

Confederate forces, in one of the rare meetings where they outnumbered Union forces, claim the victory at the Battle of Chickamauga. Union elements collapse and are pushed away in the stunning defeat.



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September 19, 1863

Another face-off between cavalry forces is witnessed at Rockville, Maryland.



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September 20, 1863

The Battle of Chickamauga ends as a Confederate victory. General Rosecrans forces are pushed out of Georgia and retreat to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Losses are 16,170 for the Union and 18,454 for the Confederacy.



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September 27, 1863

A cavalry force under the command of Colonel Joseph Shelby heads into Missouri for raiding actions. The venture lasts two days.



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October 4, 1863

Colonel Quantrill and his raiders take prisoner Union cavalry while dressed in Union garb and proceed to execute about 100. The action takes place near Fort Smith, Arkansas.



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October 10, 1863

Blue Springs, Tennessee is the site of clash between Union cavalry and Confederate forces. The result is a Confederate retreat into Virginia. The North is led by General James Shackelford and the South by General John S. Williams.



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October 13, 1863

Union troops under General E.B. Brown at Arrow Rock, Missouri, are victorious over Confederate forces led by General Joseph Shelby.



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October 16, 1863

Command of the armies of the West are handed to General Ulysses S. Grant by order of President Lincoln.



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October 19, 1863

Confederate General Jeb Stuart and his cavalry forces are victorious over Union elements at Buckland Mills, Virginia. The action is remembered as the "Buckland Races". Union elements are commanded by General Hugh Kilpatrick.



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October 19, 1863

After the events of Chickamauga, Union General William Rosecrans is relieved of his command. He is succeeded by General George Thomas.



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October 19, 1863

General Grant writes from Louisville, Kentucky "Hold Chattanooga at all hazards, I will be there as soon as possible." He would arrive in southeast Tennessee four days later.



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October 20, 1863

Confederate attackers are victorious over Union defenders at Philadelphia, Tennessee. Several hundred are taken prisoner.



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October 21, 1863

The attack on Chattanooga is planned by Union authorities including General Grand and General Rosecrans.



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October 28, 1863

The battle of Wauhatchie begins pitting XI and XII Corps of the Union against General Longstreet's Corps and Jenkin's Brigade. The battle will span into the 29th of October.



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October 28, 1863

The Gillmore Medal is announced by General Quincy Gillmore of the Union Army. This award serves to recognize those having attempted to retake Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor.



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October 29, 1863

The Battle of Wauhatchie concludes as a Union victory. Losses total 420 for the North and 408 for the South.



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November 2, 1863

Henry Allen, a General in the Confederate Army, is named governor of Louisiana.



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November 2, 1863

Union forces form up at Brazos Santiago, Texas near the Mexican border.



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November 2, 1863

This date marks the start of the Battle of Brownsville (Texas). General Banks leads the Union against Mexican Patriots led by former Confederate Generals.



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November 6, 1863

Union troops move into Brownsville, Texas, expanding their foothold in the Confederate state.



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November 6, 1863

The Battle of Brownsville ends as a Union victory.



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November 7, 1863

Union forces are victorious at Rappahannock Bridge in Virginia. The attack involves a rare bayonet charge in the evening hours.



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November 10, 1863

The Signal Corps is ordered to move its equipment to the Military Telegraph Service.



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November 17, 1863

Union elements take Aransas Pass in Texas.



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November 18, 1863

Confederate General Longstreet and his army force a retreat of Union elements (namely cavalry). The Union Army relocates to the safety of Knoxville, Tennessee but a siege is ordered to bring the enemy to surrender.



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November 19, 1863

Confederate forces are driven from Fort Esperanza in Matagorda Bay, Texas.



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November 23, 1863

The Battles for Chattanooga take place from November 23rd to NOvember 25th. Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Rossville Gap are some of the names associated with the actions. General Grant faces General Bragg and his Army of the Tennessee.



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November 25, 1863

The Chattanooga Campaign comes to a close and is recorded as a Union victory, further enhancing General Grant's growing legacy in the war.



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November 26, 1863

With Confederate forces in retreat from Chattanooga, Union Generals Sherman and Hooker follow in an attempt to smash the enemy.



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November 27, 1863

Union General Meade and his forces move to tackle the forces of General Less at Mine Run, Virginia. The Battle of Mine Run ensues and spans from November 27th until December 2nd. Union strength numbers 81,000 against a Confederate Army of 48,000.



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November 29, 1863

Prisoner General John Morgan and six associates dig their way to freedom from an Ohio prison.



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November 29, 1863

Confederate attackers are forced back by Union defenders at Fort Sanders near Knoxville, Tennessee.



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December 2, 1863

Results of the Battle of Mine Run are inconclusive. Casualties amount to 1,272 Union losses and 680 Confederate.



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December 5, 1863

Confederate forces leave their siege of Knoxville and exit the state. This grants Union forces complete control of the Confederate territory.



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December 13, 1863

The Georgia State Line militia is arranged.



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December 15, 1863

A Confederate attempt fails against Union cavalry elements at Bean's Station, Tennessee forcing General Longstreet to rearrange his subordinate command.



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January 30, 1864

The Department of the Missouri is handed over to General Rosecrans of the Union Army.



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February 1, 1864

From the period of February 1st to the 3rd, Confederate forces unsuccessfully attempt to retake New Bern, North Carolina from Union defenders.



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February 3, 1864

Union General Sherman begins the Meridian Campaign, the taking of Meridian, Mississippi.



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February 5, 1864

Union forces, under General Sherman, meet Confederate forces at Clinton and Jackson, Mississippi.



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February 6, 1864

General Sherman reaches Jackson, Mississippi. The city is razed.



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February 7, 1864

Jacksonville, Florida is the target of a Union force led by General Truman Seymour. Half of the attacking force is made up of black soldiers. The city is taken.



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February 9, 1864

Colonel Thomas Rose and 107 others escape their Confederate prison in Richmond, Virginia. He is recaptured along with forty-seven of the group.



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February 9, 1864

From the period of February 9th through the 14th, Union forces continue their march through Florida.



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February 10, 1864

Another 109 Union officer-level personnel manage an escape from a Confederate prison in Richmond, Virginia.



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February 11, 1864

A Union Army from Memphis, Tennessee crosses into Mississippi and marches on, destroying crop fields along their path.



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February 14, 1864

General Sherman's force takes Meridian, Mississippi and destroys much of its infrastructure.



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February 19, 1864

Like General Grant, General Sherman receives an official thanks for his services in the ongoing war - namely his direction of the Chattanooga victory.



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February 20, 1864

The Battle of Olustee (Florida) is had. 5,500 Union troops face 5,000 Confederates. The battle is a Confederate victory with 1,861 Union wounded to the South's 946. Commanding officers are Truman Seymour (Union) and Joseph Finnegan (Confederate).



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February 21, 1864

West Point, Mississippi is the site of a Confederate victory over a much larger Union force. Confederate General Nathan Bedford leads the victors.



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February 22, 1864

The Battle of Okolona takes place in Chickasaw County, Mississippi. Confederate forces, numbering 2,500 under the leadership of General Forrest, is victorious against a larger Union contingent of 7,000 under the direction of William Sooy Smith.



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February 23, 1864

Some 400 Union prisoners are relocated from Belle Isle, Virginia to Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia.



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February 27, 1864

Georgia is home to a new war prison for Union troops. The facility is located in Andersonville, Georgia.



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March 5, 1864

With the Meridian Campaign completed, General Sherman makes his return to Union-held Vicksburg in Mississippi.



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March 8, 1864

Five Union soldiers are murdered by Southern sympathizers on leave in Charleston, Illinois. The group is killed by a mob numbering one hundred.



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March 9, 1864

Command of the Union armies in the West are given to General William Sherman.



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March 12, 1864

General Henry Halleck is replaced with General Grant by President Lincoln. Grant will now head the Union Army as its General-in-Chief.



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March 14, 1864

Fort De Russy is taken by Union General Banks in Louisiana.



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March 14, 1864

150,000 bales of cotton are ordered burned prior to the arrival of Union forces in Louisiana. The order is from Confederate General Edmund Smith.



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March 18, 1864

The Veteran Reserve Corps is formed from the Invalid Corps.



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March 18, 1864

Union forces take Alexandria, Louisiana without firing a shot.



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March 20, 1864

General George Stoneman undertakes a three-day cavalry raiding campaign into Virginia and North Carolina from a Union base in Tennessee.



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March 21, 1864

Henderson's Hill, Louisiana is the site of a capture of 250 unsuspecting Confederate soldiers by Union forces.



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March 24, 1864

Union City, Tennessee and its defenders are captured by Confederate General Nathaniel Bedford.



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March 25, 1864

Paducah, Kentucky, at the Kentucky-Tennessee border, is raided by Confederate elements of General Nathan Forrest.



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April 2, 1864

Cavalry units, under the leadership of Union General James H. Wilson, capture Selma, Alabama.



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April 7, 1864

Wilson's Plantation in Louisiana is the site of a meeting of cavalry forces from both sides.



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April 8, 1864

Confederate forces at Sabine Crossroads along the Red River stop , and drive back, a Union advance.



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April 9, 1864

Pleasant Hill, Louisiana is the site of a Union victory over Confederate elements as the Red River Campaign advances. Union General Nathaniel Banks directs the victors.



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April 9, 1865

The Battle of Fort Blakely comes to a close. It is a Union victory for Army of West Mississippi commander Edward Canby.



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April 10, 1864

Mary Edwards Walker, the lone female surgeon in the Union Army, is taken prisoner by Southern elements. This occurs at the Tennessee-Georgia border.



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April 12, 1864

Fort Pillow, Tennessee, is the site of a Confederate victory by General Nathan Bedford. Black soldiers fighting for the Union are executed.



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April 12, 1864

Confederate General Thomas Green is killed during a cavalry attack on a Union gunboat flotilla at Blair's Landing in Louisiana.



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April 14, 1864

Around $1 million is raised for the U.S. Army's Sanitary Commission by the Manhattan Fair.



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April 18, 1864

In a speech given at the Sanitary Fair at Baltimore, President Lincoln cautions against retaliation.



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April 20, 1864

Plymouth, North Carolina falls to the Confederates.



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April 20, 1864

Macon, Georgia falls to Union cavalry forces under the leadership of General Wilson.



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April 21, 1864

Event person portrait
Mary Walker, the Union's lone female surgeon, is delivered to the Confederate capital of Richmond in Virginia.



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April 25, 1864

Marks's Mills, Arkansas is the site of a Confederate capture of over 200 Union supply wagons.



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May 1, 1864

By this date in the war, Union troop strength numbers over 660,000.



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May 3, 1864

Union General Grant advances towards Richmond, Virginia - the Confederate capital - with a force numbering about 100,000.



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May 3, 1864

General Steele's army is forced back into Little Rock, Arkansas.



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May 4, 1864

Union General William Sherman begins his move towards Atlanta, Georgia.



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May 5, 1864

The Battle of the Wilderness takes place across Spotsylvania and Orange counties in Virginia. Generals Ulysses Grant and George Meade face-off against Robert E. Lee. Strength includes 124,232 for the Union and about 65,000 for the Confederacy.



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May 6, 1864

Confederate General Micah Jenkins is killed by friendly fire during the Battle of the Wilderness.



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May 6, 1864

Confederate General James Longstreet is seriously wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness by friendly fire.



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May 7, 1864

The Battle of the Wilderness comes to an end as an inconclusive engagement. Losses and casualties for the Union number 17,666 and the Confederate totals 11,033.



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May 7, 1864

The Division of West Mississippi is created under the Union banner.



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May 7, 1864

Event person portrait
The Battle of Todd's Tavern (Virginia) takes place between cavalry forces from both sides. Union elements are directed by General Philip Sheridan and Confederate forces are led by Jeb Stuart. The clash is inconclusive.



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May 8, 1865

On this date, Confederate forces lay claim to five Union ships. The action occurs near Alexandria, Louisiana.



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May 8, 1864

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House begins. Union Generals Grant and Meade square off, once again, against Confederate General Robert E. Lee. The action takes place in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Union forces number as many as 110,000 against a Confederate army of 63,000.



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May 9, 1864

The Battle of Cloyd's Mountain is a limited engagement between 6,100 Union troops against 2,400 Confederates. It takes place in Pulaski County, Virginia and goes down as a Union victory. The battle is significant in eliminating the last Confederate line from Virginia into Tennessee. General George Crook directs the victors against Confederate Generla Albert Jenkins. Losses are 688 to 538, respectively.



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May 9, 1864

Union General Sherman pushes towards Richmond, Virginia.



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May 10, 1864

Railroad equipment and track sections are destroyed at Beaver Dam Station, Virginia, under the direction of General Custer.



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May 10, 1864

Confederate forces, numbering 4,000, at Crockett's Cove, Virginia, stand their ground against a Union charge of 2,500 strong. The attackers are driven back into West Virginia. Confederate General William E. Jones claims the victory over Union General William Averell. The official battle results are listed as inconclusive.



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May 11, 1864

The Battle of Yellow Tavern is had in Hanover County, Virginia. It is a Union victory for General Sheridan and a loss for the combined forces of Confederate Generals Jeb Stuart and Fitzhugh Lee. Numbers are 12,000 for the victors and 5,000 for the defeated. Casualties number 625 and 300 respectively.



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May 12, 1864

Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart, aged 31, dies of wounds suffered at the Battle of Yellow Tavern the day before.



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May 12, 1864

Union forces break through Confederate defensive lines at Snake Creek Gap. The action takes place near Dalton, Georgia and Union elements are directed by General Sheridan.



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May 12, 1864

The Battle of Meadow Bridge takes place and is a Union victory as part of the Overland Campaign. General Sheridan is victorious over generals Fitzhugh Lee and James Gordon.



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May 15, 1864

Confederate defenders at Resaca (Georgia), led by General Johnstom, are successful in holding their ground against Union attackers (General Sherman). The Battle of Resaca is determined to be inconclusive as the Confederates retreat. Nearly 100,000 Union men fought 60,000 Confederates. Losses were 4,500 to 2,800, respectively.



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May 15, 1864

The Battle of Fort Darling - or Battle of Drewry's Bluff - is had pitting five Union warships against an artillery-laden Confederate fort in Chesterfield County, Virginia. It is a Confederate victory for General Beauregard. Union General Benjamin Butler is handed the defeat.



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May 15, 1864

Confederate General Johnston withdraws his forces near Dalton, Georgia, under growing pressure from General Sherman.



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May 15, 1864

The Battle of New Market takes place in Shenandoah County, Virginia. It is a Confederate victory for General Breckinridge over General Franz Sigel. Forces number 4,087 to 6,275, respectively, and losses total 531 to 841, respectively.



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May 18, 1864

The Battle of Yellow Bayou is had in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana. It results in a Union victory though not without both sides gaining, and eventually losing, the advantage several times during the battle. The Union is directed by Joseph Mower and the Confederates by Richard Taylor. Losses are 360 and 500 respectively.



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May 20, 1864

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House concludes as a Confederate tactical victory. General Lee takes the credit over Union leaders General Grant and Meade. Casualties and losses number 12,687 for the victors and 18,399 for the defeated.



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May 20, 1864

The Battle of Ware Bottom Church sees Confederate General Beauregard victorious over Union General Benjamin Butler. The fighting takes place in Chesterfield County, Virginia.



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May 21, 1864

Confederate General Albert Jenkins dies of his wounds suffered at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain, Virginia. He was 33.



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May 23, 1864

The Battle of North Anna begins spanning Caroline and Hanover counties in Virginia. Union forces are led by Ulysses Grant and George Meade against Robert E. Lee and the outnumbered Confederate army (Army of Northern Virginia).



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May 24, 1864

The Battle of Wilson's Wharf is fought. It is a Union victory at Charles City, Virginia. General Edward Wild claims the victory over General Fitzhugh Lee.



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May 26, 1864

The Battle of New Hope Church in Georgia sees the Military Division of the Mississippi, under the leadership of Generals Sherman and Hooker, lose to the Army of Tennessee led by General Johnston.



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May 26, 1864

Following their retreat from Alexandria, Louisiana, Union forces and General Nathaniel Banks reside in Donaldsonville.



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May 26, 1864

The Battle of North Anna ends with inconclusive results as neither side gains the advantage.



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May 28, 1864

The Battle of Haw's Shop takes place on this date. It is inconclusive. The 4,000-strong Union force is led by General David Gregg against the 4,500 Confederates under the leadership of General Wade Hampton.



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May 28, 1864

The Battle of Totopotomoy Creek begins.



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May 30, 1864

The Battle of Totopotomoy Creek is inconclusive.



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May 30, 1864

The Battle of Old Church takes place. It is a Union victory for General Alfred Torbert.



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May 31, 1864

The Battle of Cold Harbor begins as part of the Overland Campaign. Union forces number over 100,000 and are led by generals Ulysses S. Grant and George Meade. They face a Confederate army numbering around 60,000 and are led by General Robert E. Lee.



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June 5, 1864

Piedmont, Virginia is the site of a Union victory under General David Hunter. The Battle of Piedmont spans June 5th and June 6th.



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June 6, 1864

Staunton, Virginia falls to Union forces led by General David Hunter. Not a shot is fired.



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June 7, 1864

Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson are elected by the Republican Party to run for a second term in office. The party convention is held in Baltimore, Maryland with the war still ongoing.



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June 9, 1864

General John Morgan undertakes his last raid on Kentucky soil, this at Mt. Sterling. The results are disastrous as they face Union military opposition.



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June 9, 1864

Failing to unseat General Lee's defenders at Petersburg, Virginia, Union General Grant enacts a siege of the city. The siege will last (officially) until March 25th, 1865 and result in a Union victory.



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June 10, 1864

The Battle of Brice's Crossroads is recorded. A smaller Confederate force of 3,500 cavalry is victorious against a Union army consisting of 4,800 troops, 3,300 cavalry, and 22 field guns. General Nathan Forrest directs the victors over General Samuel Sturgis of the Union. The action takes place near Guntown, Mississippi.



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June 11, 1864

The Second Battle of Cynthiana is had in Kentucky. The Union victory emerges from a two-day contest in which 3,450 Union face-off against 1,200 Confederates. Losses equal 1,092 and 1,000 respectively.



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June 11, 1864

The Battle of Trevalian Station is had in Louisa County, Virginia. Confederate Generals Wade Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee are victorious over Union leader General Sheridan. The battle spans into the 12th. Strength is 6,762 Confederates versus 9,286 Union. Casualties are 813 to 1,512 respectively.



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June 12, 1864

Confederate General John Morgan retreats with his cavalry force away from Cynthiana, Kentucky.



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June 12, 1864

The Battle of Cold Harbor ends as a much-needed Confederate victory for General Robert E. Lee. Frontal assaults against fortified Confederate positions mar the Union advance which leads to thousands of casualties.



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June 14, 1864

Petersburg, Virginia is in the crosshairs of General Grant. His forces cross the James River en route to the town.



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June 14, 1864

A former planter in Tennessee, Confederate General Leonidas Polk is killed by artillery fire at Kenesaw Mountain in Georgia during the Atlanta Campaign.



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June 17, 1864

The Battle of Lynchburg is fought over a two-day span by two small forces. The Confederates numbering 14,000 under General Jubal Early are victorious in beating back 16,643 Union attackers led by General David Hunter.



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June 24, 1864

The Battle of Saint Mary's Church takes place as part of the Overland Campaign. It is inconclusive.



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June 27, 1864

The Battle of Kennesaw Mountin results in a Confederate victory. General Joseph Johnston faces off against Union General William Sherman in the clash. Numbers are 17,733 to 16,225 respectively and losses include 1,000 to 3,000, respectively.



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July 2, 1864

With Washinton, D.C. as the primary target, cavalry forces led by General Jubal Early raid into Maryland. The operation would span into July 13th.



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July 3, 1864

James Island, Charleston Harbor is the site of a successful Confederate defense of Fort Johnson against Union attackers.



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July 4, 1864

A new provision signed into law by President Lincoln now guarantees a $100 yearly bonus to Union troops.



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July 7, 1864

Another Union attack is beaten back at Charleston, South Carolina, as the defenders continue to deny the important port city to the North.



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July 9, 1864

The Battle of Monocacy in Frederick County, Maryland, sees a Union force (commanded by Lew Wallace) of 5,800 strong go up against a much larger Confederate army of 14,000. The successful delay of General Jubal Early's troops, en route to Washington, D.C., makes it a Union strategic victory. Washington, D.C. is reinforced in the mean time.



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July 9, 1864

Union cavalry raids begin at Decatur, Alabama under the leadership of General Lovell Rousseau. The raids will head into Marietta, Georgia and span to July 22nd.



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July 11, 1864

Fort Stevens in Washington, D.C. is fired upon by elements of Confederate General General Early (the Battle of Fort Stevens). This occurs during a visit by President Lincoln.



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July 12, 1864

General Early removes his forces form the vicinity of Washington, D.C.



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July 14, 1864

Harrisburg, Mississippi is the site of a successful Union defense against a Confederate attack. However, Union forces still flee and destroy the town in their wake. The force relocates to Memphis, Tennessee.



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July 16, 1864

A skirmish is had between opposing forces at Heaton's Crossroads in northern Virginia (Loudoun County). Results of the one-day engagement are inconclusive. The event is also known as the Purcellville Wagon Raid.



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July 17, 1864

The Army of Tennessee sees a new commanding officer named - General John Hood succeeds General Joseph Johnston. The appointment is made by President Davis himself.



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July 17, 1864

The railworks running between Montgomery, Alabama and Columbus, Georgia is destroyed by a Confederate force. This action occurs at Opelika, Alabama and is directed by General Rousseau.



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July 17, 1864

The Battle of Cool Spring takes place over two days between a Union force of 5,000 against a Confederate army of 8,000. It results in a Confederate victory for General Jubal Early and John Breckinridge.



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July 20, 1864

The Battle of Peachtree Creek takes place in Fulton County, Georgia. 21,655 Union troops under George H. Thomas claim the victory over the 20,250 Confederate army led by General John Hood (Army of Tennessee). Losses are 1,900 to 2,500, respectively.



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July 20, 1864

The Battle of Rutherford's Farm takes place (also known as Carter's Farm and Stephenson's Depot). It is a Union victory for General Averell over General Ramseur. Forces number 2,350 Union against 3,300 Confederates.



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July 22, 1864

Confederate forces attempt another attack on General Sherman's army outside of Atlanta. The attack fails.



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July 22, 1864

The Battle of Atlanta becomes a Union victory. 34,863 Union troops under Generals Sherman and McPherson face-off against the Army of Tennessee and its 40,438 troops led by General Hood and Hardee. Losses are 3,641 against 5,500, respectively.



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July 24, 1864

Kernstown, Virginia is the site of a successful cavalry attack by General Jubal Early over Union forces. It is recorded as the Second Battle of Kernstown.



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July 26, 1864

General George Stoneman directs several cavalry raids across Georgia over the period spanning five days. He begins in Decatur and ends at Macon.



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July 28, 1864

Ezra Church, Georgia - outside of Atlanta - is the site of another failed Confederate attack against General Sherman's Union forces.



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July 29, 1864

Railworks between Griffin and Jonesboro, Georgia are destroyed by Union forces.



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July 30, 1864

A massive underground explosion by Union engineers fails to defeat the defenses of Petersburg, Virginia. General Burnside leads the Union forces.



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July 30, 1864

Chambersburg, Pennsylvania is held for ransom by occupying Confederate troops. When the demand is not met, the town is burned.



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July 30, 1864

During the Atlanta Campaign, Union General Stoneman is captured along with his aide near Macon, Georgia by Confederates. His prison term becomes just three months as he is released, mainly in part by the direct request of Union General Sherman himself.



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August 1, 1864

The Battle of Folck's Mill takes place. It is an inconclusive engagement. Also known as the Battle of Cumberland.



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August 2, 1864

The Battle of Mobile Bay begins pitting a Union force of 12 wooden ships, 4 ironclads and 2 gunboats against a Confederate force of 3 gunboats and one ironclad. Additionally, 5,500 Union troops make up a land contingent while the Confederates field 1,500 men. The battle would last until August 23rd. David Farragut and Gordon Granger are the Union leaders. The Confederates are led by Franklin Buchanan and Richard Page.



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August 3, 1864

General Horace Capron and his forces near Jug Tavern in Georgia come across a Confederate force.



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August 7, 1864

The Battle of Moorefield takes place in Hardy County, West Virginia. It is a Union victory for General William Averell over Confederate leader John McCausland. Union strength is 1,760 against 3,000 Confederates. Casualties are 42 against 488, respectively.



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August 8, 1864

The Union Army, directed by Gordon Granger, takes Fort Gaines (Dauphin Island) during the Battle of Mobile Bay. 900 prisoners are taken.



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August 16, 1864

The Battle of Guard Hill in Warren County, Virginia is an inconclusive engagement between the two parties. General Thomas Devin leads Union forces against Confederate General William Wofford. Losses are 71 to 480, respectively. The engagement is also known as the Battle of Crooked Run.



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August 17, 1864

General Sheridan is forced to retreat back across the Potomac under force from Confederate leader Jubal Early.



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August 21, 1864

Union-held Memphis, Tennessee is attacked by Confederate forces under the command of General Nathan Forrest.



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August 21, 1864

The Battle of Summit Point, also known under the names of Flowing Springs and Cameron's Depot, takes place in Summit Point, West Virginia. It is an inconclusive engagement involving Union General Sheridan and Confederate Generals Anderson and Early.



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August 23, 1864

The Battle of Mobile Bay comes to a close on this date. It is a Union victory with 151 killed and 177 wounded for the Union and 13 killed and 22 wounded for the Confederate. One Union ironclad is sunk. 1,587 Confederate troops are captured in the fighting and one gunboat destroyed.



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August 23, 1864

Union General Gordon Granger claims Fort Morgan during the Battle of Mobile Bay. Confederate General Richard Page surrenders the fort.



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August 25, 1864

Atlanta falls under siege to forces led by Union General Sherman.



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August 25, 1864

The Battle of Smithfield Crossing is another inconclusive engagement between the two sides in West Virginia. The fighting spans August 25th into August 29th.



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Aigust 29, 1864

Union General George McClellan is nominated by the Democratic Party in Chicago, Illinois. He will square-off in the Presidential Election of 1864 against incumbent Abraham Lincoln.



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August 31, 1864

The Battle of Jonesborough begins in Clayton County, Georgia. General Sherman leads 70,000 Union troops against 24,000 Confederates under General Hood and General Hardee.



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August 31, 1864

A repulsed attack at Jonesborough effectively marks the last attempt by the Confederacy to hold Atlanta.



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September 1, 1864

The Battle of Jonesborough ends as a Union victory for General Sherman.



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September 1, 1864

With the situation growing hopeless, Confederate General Hood pulls his men out of Atlanta. Any useful structures and materials are burned.



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September 2, 1864

General Sherman's force takes the city of Atlanta. This ends the Atlanta Campaign which began back in May of 1964 and is marked as a major Union victory - certainly helping President Lincoln's reelection chances.



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September 3, 1864

From the period of September 3rd until the 4th, the Battle of Berryville takes place in Clarke County, Virginia. It is an inconclusive engagement.



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September 4, 1864

Confederate General John Morgan is killed by Union troops. He dies aged 39 in Greeneville, Tennessee.



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September 7, 1864

Civilians are ordered out of the city of Atlanta following its capture by Union forces.



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September 16, 1864

General Grant's HQ in Virginia is raided. Some 2,500 cattle are taken. The Confederate force is led by General Wade Hampton.



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September 18, 1864

Union defenders stand fast against a Confederate attack at Fort Gibson (Oklahoma / Indian Territory).



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September 19, 1864

The Third Battle of Winchester is fought as a Union victory. General Sheridan leads Union forces against Confederate Jubal Early in Virginia.



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September 19, 1864

Confederate General Sterling Price begins a series of cavalry raids into Missouri.



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September 19, 1864

The Third Battle of Winchester (Battle of Opequon) is had. It is a Union victory in Virginia for General Sheridan over General Early.



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September 21, 1864

Middle Tennessee is the target of several cavalry raids by Confederate General Nathan Forrest.



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September 21, 1864

The Battle of Fisher's Hill takes place in Shenandoah County, Virginia. It is a Union victory for General Sheridan over General Early. Fighting spans the 21st into the 22nd.



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September 22, 1864

General Sheridan of the Union Army is victorious over Jubal Early and his Confederate force at the Battle of Fisher's Hill in Virginia.



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September 24, 1864

The Union Defenders at Athens, Alabama are removed by a Confederate cavalry force led by General Forrest.



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September 27, 1864

Fort Davidson, Missouri is the site of a Union victory over the Confederates. The victors are commanded by General Thomas Ewing. General Sterling Price leads the Confederate attackers.



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September 29, 1864

The Battle of Chaffin's Farm and New Market Heights is had. Union forces, numbering 26,600 strong, are led by General Benjamin Butler. The Confederate force numbers 14,500 and is led by General Robert E. Lee and General Richard Ewell. The battle spans September 29th into the 30th in Henrico County, Virginia and ends as a Union victory.



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October 1, 1864

Confederate General Wheeler begins a week-long period of raids into Tennessee against Union targets - namely army supply lines.



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October 2, 1864

The Battle of Saltville in Virginia takes place. The one-day battle is a victory for the Confederate Home Guard numbering 300. They face a force of 5,000.



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October 2, 1864

Anderson's Cross Roads in Tennessee is the site of one of General Wheeler's raids into Union-held Tennessee. A supply wagon train is taken.



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October 2, 1864

Command of the 3rd Cavalry Division is handed to General Custer.



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October 3, 1864

McMinnville, Tennessee is taken by General Wheeler's cavalry force.



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October 3, 1864

Confederate forces under General Bell take Big Shanty and Acworth - both in Georgia.



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October 5, 1864

The Battle of Allatoona is fought in Bartow County, Georgia. Union strength numbers 2,025 against a Confederate army of 3,276. The clash is a Union victory, part of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, with casualties totaling 706 for the victors and 897 for the South.



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October 7, 1864

Union forces are successful against General Wheeler's cavalry at Duck River in Tennessee.



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October 9, 1864

The Battle of Tom's Brook takes place in Shenandoah County, Virginia. It is a Union victory.



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October 11, 1864

The Butler Medal is commissioned by Major General Butler of the Union Army. This award recognizes heroic acts by black soldiers during the Battle of Chaffin's Farm and New Market Heights. The medal is personally funded by Butler.



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October 10, 1864

The state of Maryland adopts a new constitution aimed at officially ending the practice of slavery within its borders.



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October 15, 1864

Camp Lawton, a large Confederate prison outside of Millen in Georgia opens its doors to the first Union troops.



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October 16, 1864

More Confederate raids are had into Tennessee. General Forrest begins a near-month-long campaign targeting Union supply lines. The campaign ends around November 10th.



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October 19, 1864

The Shenandoah Valley is made more secure with a Union victory at the Battle of Cedar Creek in Virginia. General Sheridan is victorious over General Early in this one-day affair.



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October 22, 1864

A new offensive into Tennessee is begun by Confederate General John Bell.



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October 22, 1864

The Battle of Byram's Ford is fought. Union forces are victorious in Kansas City, Missouri.The battle rages into the 23rd.



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October 25, 1864

Confederate generals John Marmaduke and William Cabell are taken prisoner (along with 1,000 troops) through actions by Union General Alfred Pleasonton.



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November 15, 1864

Union General Sherman's "March to the Sea" is begin in Georgia. The campaign would last until December 21st and result in a major Union victory. The offensive starts in Atlanta, Georgia which is now under Union control.



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November 22, 1864

The Battle of Griswoldville is fought in Jones County, Georgia. It is a Union victory.



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November 22, 1864

Union General Sherman makes a stop at the estate of Confederate General Cobb. The home is razed when the force leaves.



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November 23, 1864

Union forces at Fort Fisher in North Carolina fail to unseat Confederate defenders through explosives.



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November 23, 1864

The city of Milledgeville - the capital of Georgia from 1804 until 1868 - is captured by Union forces numbering 30,000 under General Sherman. Much damage is had to the city but many of its classic homes are spared.



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November 24, 1864

The Battle of Columbia in Tennessee is had between a Confederate force of 35,000, led by General Hood, against a Union Army numbering 28,000 under General Schofield. The fighting lasts until the 29th.



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November 25, 1864

Confederate agents set fires across New York City. The plan was hatched by Confederate cavalry commander John Morgan early on in Canada. The actions were modeled after the Draft Day riots of 1863. Some nineteen fires are started by eight agents dressed in civilian clothing.



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November 26, 1864

General Wheeler and his Confederate cavalry forces are unsuccessful at Griswoldville, Georgia against the forces of General Sherman.



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November 29, 1864

The Battle of Columbia (Tennessee) ends with a Confederate victory.



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November 29, 1864

The Battle of Spring Hill is fought in Maury County, Tennessee. Union General Schofield claims the victory over General Hood.



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November 30, 1864

The Battle of Franklin takes place on this date. 27,000 Union troops face-off against 27,000 Confederates. The battle is recorded as a Union victory for General Schofield over General Hood. Losses include 2,326 for the victors and 6,252 for the Confederates. An ill-advised charge by Hood costs the Confederate army dearly as losses total 25% of his fighting force.



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November 30, 1864

The Battle of Honey Hill is fought in Jasper County, South Carolina, and ends as a Confederate victory despite a force of 1,400 facing 5,000 Union troops.



December 1, 1864

Union cavalry raids are launched throughout the Tennessee east and into the Virginian west. General George Stoneman leads the charges which will last into early January.



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December 1, 1864

Confederate forces under the command of General John Hood of the Army of Tennessee amass outside of Nashville. Numbers will soon reach 30,000 for the Battle of Nashville by mid-month.



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December 13, 1864

Fort McAllister falls to Union guns. The capture is another victory for General Sherman as the Union army inches its way closer to the prize that is Savannah, Georgia.



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December 15, 1864

The Battle of Nashville (Tennessee) begins with a Confederate force of 30,000 under General Hood facing General Thomas and his 55,000-strong Union army.



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December 16, 1864

The Battle of Nashville ends as a Union victory for General George Thomas. Confederate General Hood's losses are double (6,000 to 3,061) what Union forces see. The end of the fighting also spells the end for the Army of Tennessee.



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December 20, 1864

With General Sherman's Union force gaining ground, the Confederates are forced to flee from their positions in Savannah.



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December 21, 1864

Sherman's "March to the Sea" campaign ends as a Union victory. It began in captured Atlanta and ended with the fall of Savannah, Georgia.



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December 21, 1864

The Confederate Navy's Savannah Squadron fleet is ordered destroyed to keep the vessels from falling into enemy hands.



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December 22, 1864

Sherman's 'March to the Sea' comes to a close with the capture of Savannah, Georgia.



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December 26, 1864

President Lincoln, by letter, personally thanks General William Sherman for his successful campaign - his 'March to the Sea' - which began on November 15th that finally delivered Savannah, Georgia in time for Christmas.



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December 27, 1864

Defenders at Fort Fisher, North Carolina, are successful in their defense against a Union offensive to retake the position.



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December 28, 1864

Fort Harrison is taken by Union troops led by General Grant. This is significant in that the fort guards the route towards Richmond, Virginia - the Confederate capital.



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January 10, 1865

Congress formally congratulates General Sherman on his exploits across Georgia resulting in the capture of Savannah.



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January 11, 1865

General Robert E. Lee, realizing the fortunes of the Confederacy are growing limited, announces his support for a gradual freedom for slaves.



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January 24, 1865

A Confederate attempt to assault General Grant's headquarters at City Point (Virginia) is called off.



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January 31, 1865

By this date, the Confederate prisoner count at Camp Chase (Columbus, Ohio) nears 9,425.



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February 1, 1865

A new march by General Sherman sees his army proceed north into South Carolina and then North Carolina.



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February 4, 1865

John C. Breckinridge is appointed the new Secretary of War for the Confederacy. The appointment is managed by Confederate President Davis himself.



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February 5, 1865

The Battle of Hatcher's Run begins in Dinwiddle County, Virginia. A 34,517 strong Union force faces a 13,835 strong Confederate army. Union forces are headed by General Andrew Hunmphreys and General Gouverneur Warren. Confederate forces are directed by John B. Gordon.



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February 6, 1865

Robert E. lee is named chief commander of the entire Confederate military by Confederate President Jefferson Davis.



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February 6, 1865

Confederate General John Pegram is killed during the Battle of Hatcher's Run.



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February 7, 1865

The Battle of Hatcher's Run in Virginia comes to a close. It is a Union victory. Losses total 1,539 for the Union and 1,161 for the Confederacy.



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February 9, 1865

The U.S. Congress officially congratulates General Philip Sheridan on his exploits centering on the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.



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February 11, 1865

To deal with the issue of desertions in the Confederate ranks, General Lee offers broad forgiveness to those who return to fight with the period of twenty days.



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February 11, 1865

The Battle of Wilmington (North Carolina) begins between 12,000 Union and 6,000 Confederate troops. Generals Schofield and Porter lead the Union against General Bragg of the Confederacy. Fighting would last until February 22nd.



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February 17, 1865

Union forces, under General Sherman, take Columbia, South Carolina.



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February 17, 1865

Posing as a male Confederate soldier, Mollie Bean is taken prisoner by Union forces outside of the Confederate capital of Richmond in Virginia. Under questioning, she reveals that she has fought with the 47th (North Carolina) for a period of two years, having been wounded at least twice.



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February 18, 1865

Citizens flee Charleston, South Carolina prior to the arrival of Union troops.



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February 18, 1865

Castle Pinckney in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina) falls to the South Carolina 21st Colored Infantry of the Union army.



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February 21, 1865

The Battle of Douglas Landing takes place in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. It is a Confederate victory.



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February 22, 1865

The Battle of Wilmington ends with the Union capture of Wilmington itself.



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February 23, 1865

The Confederate Senate rejects a proposal that would see as many as 200,000 blacks infused into the Confederate ranks.



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February 27, 1865

Raids under the direction of Union General Sheridan begin against Confederate holdings across northern Virginia.



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March 2, 1865

Confederate General Robert E. Lee offers peace negotiations to President Lincoln. The overture is rejected.



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March 2, 1865

The Battle of Waynesboro takes place in Virginia. It is a Union victory and notable for the destruction of General Jubal Early's army. Strength includes 2,500 Union against 1,600 Confederates with casualties being 9 to 1,500, respectively.



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March 4, 1865

A new national flag is approved by the Confederate Congress - the Confederate National Flag, Third Pattern. The pattern is the third of three seen during the conflict with the First Pattern showcasing a ring of stars and three stripes (red-white-red). The Second Pattern showcases the traditional Confederate flag in the upper left corner but the broad use of white space is deemed too close to a flag of surrender. Thus a new flag is commissioned as the Third Pattern.



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March 10, 1865

The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads is recorded on this date. Fighting takes place near Fayetteville in North Carolina and is an inconclusive engagement.



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March 13, 1865

Confederate President Jefferson Davis approves a bill that will allow slaves to 'earn' their freedom through enlistment in the Confederate ranks.



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March 14, 1865

Union forces under the direction of General Sheridan take Fayatteville, North Carolina.



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March 16, 1865

The Battle of Averasborough takes place in North Carolina. It is an inconclusive engagement between the forces of General Sherman and General Hardee.



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March 19, 1865

The Battle of Bentonville takes place in Bentonville, North Carolina. It is a Union victory for General Sherman over General Johnston. Strength is 60,000 to 21,900 with losses reaching 1,527 to 2,606, respectively. Fighting goes into the 21st.



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March 21, 1865

Confederate President Davis is alerted by General Lee that no more can be done to slow down General Sherman's Union army.



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March 24, 1865

President Lincoln begins a three-week visit to General Grant at his headquarters in City Point, Virginia. Among those in attendance is General Sherman.



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March 25, 1865

General Sheridan's cavalry raiding campaign into northern Virginia comes to a close.



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March 25, 1865

Union troops are victorious at the Battle of Fort Stedman in Petersburg, Virginia. The engagement is also known as the Battle of Hare's Hill.



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March 25, 1865

The Siege of Petersburg ends near Petersburg, Virginia. It is a Union victory.



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March 27, 1865

The Battle of Spanish Fort (Alabama) begins.



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March 30, 1865

Confederate General Jubal Early is relieved of duty following several notable losses. General Robert E. Lee makes the final decision, citing Early's 'ability to inspire confidence' in his men going forward.



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April 1, 1865

The Battle of Five Forks is fought between forces of General Sheridan and General Pickett near Petersburg, Virginia. It is a Union victory with lopsided losses for the Confederacy (2,950 Confederates to 830 Union).



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April 2, 1865

The Battle of Fort Blakely begins in Baldwin County, Alabama. It is part of the Mobile Campaign and pits 45,000 Union attackers against 4,000 Confederate defenders. This battle marks the last combined-force engagement of the Civil War.



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April 2, 1865

The Battle of Selma takes place in Selma, Alabama. It is a Union victory for General James Wilson and a defeat for Confederate General Nathan Forrest. Strength is 9,000 to 4,000, respectively. Confederate forces suffer mightily as some 2,700 are taken prisoner (General Forrest manages to escape capture).



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April 2, 1865

Confederate President Jefferson Davis is advised by General Lee to leave Richmond, Virginia.



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April 2, 1865

Confederate forces begin an evacuation of the capital of Richmond, Virginia.



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April 3, 1865

Important government documents and gold reserves from the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, are relocated for safety.



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April 3, 1865

Union forces claim both Petersburg and the Confederate capital city of Richmond in Virginia in a major blow to the Confederacy.



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April 4, 1865

Union forces take Tuscaloosa, Alabama in the Battle of Tuscaloosa. It is captured by General John Croxton.



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April 5, 1865

The Battle of Amelia Springs is deemed inconclusive.



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April 5, 1865

President Lincoln tours the former Confederate capital of Richmond following its capture by Union forces.



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April 6, 1865

The Battle of Sailor's Creek (or Sayler's) takes place between Union General Philip Sheridan and his 26,000-strong army against Generals Richard Ewell and John Gordon of the Confederacy. Confederate strength numbers 18,500 men. It is a Union victory in Virginia.



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April 8, 1865

Appomattox train station is the site of a Union capture of enemy supplies. General George Custer presides over the victory.



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April 9, 1865

The Battle of Appomattox Court House takes place marking one of the final engagements of the American Civil War. The battle is a decisive Union victory and sees General Lee surrender his Army of Northern Virginia to General Grant. The Union army is made up of 150,000 soldiers against the Confederate's 28,000.



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April 12, 1865

Union forces take Mobile, Alabama.



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April 13, 1865

Confederate General Johnston calls for an armistice.



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April 13, 1865

Raleigh, North Carolina is taken by Union forces under General Philip Sheridan.



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April 13, 1865

Washington, D.C. celebrates the surrender of General Robert E. Lee.



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April 13, 1865

The Union Army begins its massive draw down from wartime numbers.



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April 16, 1865

The Battle of West Point takes place in West Point, Georgia. It is a Union victory for Oscar La Grange over Robert Tyler. This engagement marks the last battle to take place east of the Mississippi River.



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April 18, 1865

Durham Station, North Carolina is the site of a Confederate army surrender. Union General William Sherman presides as he accepts the surrender of General Joseph Johnston and his forces.



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April 20, 1865

Macon, Georgia is taken by Union forces directed by General James Wilson.



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April 26, 1865

The army under Confederate General Johnston is formally surrendered to Union authorities.



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April 26, 1865

After a lengthy manhunt for President Lincoln's killer, John Wilkes Booth is surrounded in a barn on rural Virginia farm (Port Royal). The barn is set ablaze and Booth is fatally shot.



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April 26, 1865

The Army of Tennessee formally surrenders to Union authorities. This takes place at Greensboro, North Carolina.



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May 4, 1865

Citronelle, Alabama is the site of a Confederate Army surrender to Union forces. General Richard Taylor directs the Confederates. Union General Edward Canby presides over the event.



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May 10, 1865

President Andrew Johnson formally proclaims the end to the years-long war.



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May 11, 1865

Chalk Bluff, Arkansas is the site of another Confederate Army surrender to Northern forces.



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May 11, 1865

Tallahassee, Florida is the side of another Confederate Army surrender to Union authorities.



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May 12, 1865

The last battle of the Civil War is fought at Palmetto Ranch near Brownsville (Texas). The Battle of Palmetto Ranch spans two days.



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May 13, 1865

The Battle of Palmetto Ranch ends as a Confederate victory.



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May 19, 1865

The large Confederate prison-of-war camp at Tyler, Texas - Camp Ford - is officially closed.



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May 22, 1865

Former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, now a prisoner of the North, is relocated to Fort Monroe in Virginia.



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May 23, 1865

The U.S. Army disbands the Army of the Potomac, its services no longer in need.



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May 26, 1865

The last major Confederate force is surrendered to authorities of the North in Galveston, Texas. This involves Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith and his Trans-Mississippi Department. General Edward Canby presides over the event.



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June 2, 1865

Confederate forces at Galveston, Texas finally surrender their positions at the port.



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June 6, 1865

Amnesty is offered by the federal government to those Confederate prisoners-of-war who agree to not have fought against the Union by choice.



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June 13, 1865

Presidetn Johnson rejects an amnesty plea from Confederate General Robert E. Lee.



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June 23, 1865

The last Confederate general surrenders to Union authorities. Colonel Asa Matthews presides over the procedure which sees General Stand Waitie surrender his Cherokee cavalry.



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July 5, 1865

The Union prison camp at Columbus, Ohio is closed - Camp Chase.



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July 18, 1865

The European Squadron is reactivated by the United States Navy. Admiral Louis Goldsborough is placed in command.



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August 2, 1865

News of the war's end reaches the crew of CSS Shenandoah which then sets sail for the neutral waters of Liverpool in England. Lt James Waddell serves as her captain.



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August 30, 1865

Judah Benjamin, former Confederate Secretary of State, safely reaches English shores.



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November 6, 1865

CSS Shenandoah arrives in England.



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